Marathon training rest and recovery tips
Holiday Inn® Hotels and Resorts, official hotel partner of the Virgin Money London Marathon, have drafted in two of the UK’s leading body and mind experts to help get runners across the finish line. Renowned mental performance coach Andy Barton and acclaimed physiotherapist Sammy Margo have revealed a series of insightful tips to help runners get through their training ahead of the race on 26 April 2015. “Many people experience huge mental stumbling blocks at the thought of getting up at the crack of dawn on a freezing cold morning for a training run, or devoting weekends to racking up the miles” explains Barton, whose clients consist of Premier League footballers, Olympic athletes and PGA European Tour golfers looking to get the mental edge.According to Barton, understanding how your mind works is essential during the training process. “When you’re due to run for 10 miles but can’t face it, tell yourself that you’ll go for just a mile. Before you know it, Newton’s First Law of Motion will be in effect and you’ll keep going. Also, use a little imagination and visualise running the London Marathon ahead of time, as doing this can actually train your brain to be more prepared for the race, as it believes it’s already run it“.As well as finding effective ways to train your mind and body, runners should never underestimate the importance of rest, according to Sammy Margo, ‘Balanced Body’ physiotherapist and author of The Good Sleep Guide. “If you’re in training, you need plenty of deep restorative sleep to encourage protein synthesis that provides the body with the best chance to recuperate. The first few hours of sleep before midnight is the best time for recovery. An hour of sleep before midnight is worth two hours afterwards, so it really does help to get an early night.”She also acknowledges that anxiety can get in the way of a good night’s sleep ̶ something runners may experience as the big day approaches. For those waking up in the middle of the night, a simple ‘20 minute rule’ that dictates getting out of bed and doing something else for a short period before trying to sleep again, is a proven technique. Sammy Margo, Sleep Expert & Chartered PhysiotherapistFirst Set of Tips 1. Build a bedtime routineThink about sleep as more of a dimmer switch than on-off switch, when it comes to your body. Try to set aside time in your day to unwind and settle before you sleep, setting yourself a technology cut-off time and avoiding any smartphone use in the bedroom. Research has shown that the emission of blue light from these devices can interfere with the release of your sleep hormone, Melatonin, which will in turn affect the quality of your sleep. Have a relaxing shower or bath, listen to some soothing music or an audiobook with a warm glass of milk or chamomile tea. Also, dim the lights to increase your chances of getting plenty of recovery-friendly sleep and keep your body fit. 2. Sleep comfortablyJust as there are good standing and sitting postures, there is also a great sleeping posture; essentially one that ensures your body is in the midline position with no twists or turns. This can make the difference between a good and bad night’s sleep, particularly if you’ve been putting your body through its paces with intensive training. Make sure that whatever position you sleep in, your body is supported whilst maintaining the natural curves of the spine to minimise stresses and strains, and try to select pillows that hold your neck in the right position. 3. Wake up wellIf you need to run in the morning then it’s important to wake up feeling good. During the night you’ll go through cycles of sleep, typically lasting between 90 and 110 minutes each, varying between light and deep sleep. It’s when your alarm wakes you from deep sleep that you will feel groggy. Sleep apps and wearable technology will monitor your sleeping patterns so you can figure out what your cycles are. This gives you the opportunity to set your alarm to wake you when you’re in a light sleep cycle and therefore more likely to feel refreshed and ready for the early morning run. 4. Use rest to help recoveryYou risk injury if you increase frequency, duration or intensity of training too quickly. Your body’s tissue tolerance to loading can only be pushed so far, effectively having a ‘plastic limit’, much like those old rulers that you could bend and bend until the moment they snapped. This means that too much training coupled with too little recovery is not a good thing. If you are recovering from an injury or overtraining, you will need to take some time out and embrace a little “active rest”. Active rest is an activity that keeps you moving but at a greatly reduced intensity or duration, like running a shorter distance on a softer surface, or swimming a few lengths and then gradually increasing distance and speed over time until you’re back to full training pace. You may wish to dedicate some time to working on your core too, as this will make you less prone to injury. Second Set of Tips 1. Indulge in snooze foodsFoods that contain Tryptophan can help to promote restful sleep as it’s the catalyst to the hormone, Melatonin, so try to include some of these foods as part of your evening meal. Bananas, for example, are practically a sleeping pill in a peel, while turkey is one of the most famous sources of Tryptophan. Marmite, almonds, oatmeal and warm milk are also effective, particularly when combined with carbohydrates. This means something like Marmite or bananas on toast are great evening snacks if you’re struggling to get to sleep. 2. Know your stimulant and sedative cyclesUnderstanding the potential effects of common stimulants and sedatives means you’re well equipped to know when to avoid them… or when to use them. Alcohol is a key sedative that’s wise to moderate during training. Although alcohol can help you feel relaxed, it may prevent you from getting into the deeper healing stages of deep restorative sleep which is crucial for recovery. Conversely, caffeine is a well-known stimulant that can help your performance, but avoid drinking it between three and eight hours before bedtime, depending on how sensitive you are to its effects. 3. Understand your sleep statesThe first few hours of sleep before midnight are when you reach a deep slow-wave sleep (SWS), which is the best time for recovery. An hour of sleep before midnight is worth two hours afterwards, so for maximum body repair where tissues regrow, bone and muscles build and the immune system strengthens, it can be beneficial to get an early night. In deep sleep there are two states: repetitive eye movement (REM) when you’re likely to dream, and non-repetitive eye movement (non-REM), when the body is doing virtually nothing. During the non-REM state, parasympathetic nervous system activity is high, which encourages protein synthesis and that’s ideal for running recovery. Final Tips1. Take your bedroom home and awayFor the best chance of a peaceful night’s sleep make your bedroom a safe haven to rest and recover, somewhere quiet, dark, comfortable and cool. A temperature between 16-18°C is perfect, and certainly no higher than 21°C. Make sure your feet are not too cold though. Having cold feet actually reduces your chances of unbroken sleep, so bed socks can be a very wise investment. When staying in a hotel, especially before the Marathon, try to replicate the calm of home by asking reception for a ‘soft’ or ‘firm’ pillow, an eye mask and ear plugs, and try to get a room with an eastern or southern exposure to benefit from some revitalizing morning sun. 2. Return to sleepAlthough you may be able to get off to sleep easily, waking in the night is common especially in anticipation of the big day. If you wake in the night avoid ‘clock watching countdown’. Turn the clock to face away or cover it up. If you feel that you have been in bed for longer than 20 minutes without catching any zzz’s then leave the ‘sleepless zone’. Get up and do something light such as emptying the dishwasher, drinking a cup of chamomile tea or reading a magazine article, then re-enter your bed as if you’re starting your sleep again. 3. Breathe easilyThere are several proven techniques to help you unwind if you’re worrying about your next run, one of which is called Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR). PMR is a great way to help you unwind and prepare your body for sleep. It involves tensing and relaxing your muscles from your toes to your forehead. Squeeze each muscle group for a few seconds then release and relax for ten seconds before moving onto the next, all the while taking deep breaths in and out. Studies have shown that PMR can reduce cortisol levels, a steroid hormone associated with stress that can play havoc with your ability to get to sleep. Andy Barton, Mental Performance Coach First Set of Tips 1. The power of enjoying yourselfOne thing people can do when they are taking on a challenge such as a marathon is to start taking it a bit too seriously and forgetting about the fun side of their activity. They think that the only way to improve is to be serious and they pile pressure on themselves and get frustrated when things don’t go to plan. We are actually far more resourceful when we are happy; we have greater energy, we think more clearly, we sleep longer and even digest our food better. Just putting a smile on your face can make a significant difference in the way you feel before and during a race. Ensure you find the fun in what you are doing and you are far more likely to stay with training and get better results. 2. Tell the worldYou may be tempted to keep your goals for the marathon to yourself. Research, however, shows a real benefit to sharing your goals with as many people as possible, partly as there is an incentive to avoid the embarrassment of not achieving it once you have told them, but also because it helps to increase motivation, focus and energy towards training and the event itself. One of the great benefits of social media is that you can share your goal and your progress with all of your friends at the click of a button. You also have the added benefit of getting positive support as you gradually increase your training regime and reach new milestones. So, if you have a goal in mind, make sure you tell everyone. 3. When a question is the answerAlthough people often use such declarative statements as “I will do it!” as a means to motivate themselves to perform, research carried out by psychologists Ibrahim Senay and Dolores Albarracin suggests that such statements actually have the opposite effect to what is intended. Often, these statements sound like obligations and we don’t like doing things we are obliged to do, do we? Interestingly, the psychologists found that people are more likely to motivate themselves to train if they used a question rather than a statement. People who say to themselves “shall I go for a run?” instead of “I shall go for a run” feel that they have a choice, and so embrace their decision to exercise in a far more positive way. So next time you want to get motivated don’t tell yourself – ask yourself instead! 4. Take control of your inner coachOne of the things that can have a massively detrimental effect on our performance is that mean, hyper-critical and pessimistic inner voice that creeps up on us when we need it least. It’s the voice that tells us that we are “no good” and that we “can’t do it”. The problem is, we tend to believe what the critical voice says to us. I often ask clients what they would do if they had a coach who spoke to them the way that they speak to themselves. Nearly always they say they would sack the coach. So next time you find your inner coach speaking to you in a negative way, sack it. Then replace it with a voice which is positive, encouraging and motivating and notice how your attitude changes towards your running. Second Set of Tips 1. How Isaac Newton can improve your trainingI’ve yet to meet an athlete of any level who doesn’t have days when they would rather slump on the sofa in front of the television with a large glass of wine than go out for a training run, especially on those cold, wet and dark evenings. They imagine a long, grueling run ahead of them and decide it’s too far or will take too much time and often give in to the temptation of having a night off. Rather than think in terms of “all or nothing”, it would actually be better to set a much smaller goal for that evening. When you’re due to run for ten miles but can’t face it, tell yourself that you’ll go for just a mile. Before you know it, Newton’s First Law of Motion will be in effect and you’ll keep going. According to Newton’s First Law of Motion, “a body in motion stays in motion”, so by getting your body moving with just a short run will more often than not get you more in the mood to run longer and further. 2. Mental pain reliefI have worked with a lot of distance runners over the years, and one of the main issues that they mention is the pain that they experience when they are competing. Pain is an inevitable factor when you are putting your body through over 26 miles of hard running, but there are ways that you can minimise it. Firstly, actually changing the word from “pain” to something more tolerable such as “discomfort” or “a niggle” can make a real difference to how you perceive it. Pain is highly subjective and we tend to feel it more if we expect to feel it. Secondly, when people experience pain (or should I say “discomfort”) they tend to let their heads drop so they are looking at the ground as they run. By looking down at the ground, you can start to become more internal and actually end up focusing more on the pain which just makes it worse. By keeping your eyes up and expanding your vision, you become more externally focused and it’s much easier to distract yourself from any niggles that may develop. 3. Focus on the positiveWhen we are worried, anxious, fearful or in a generally negative mood, we tend to speak to ourselves using negative statements such as “don’t be nervous”, “don’t worry” or “don’t mess this up”. Unfortunately, our minds can’t actually process negatives so we end up focusing on the thing that we don’t want to happen, effectively programming ourselves to do things badly. If you have ever been carrying a tray of drinks and someone has said “don’t spill them” you will understand how this makes you more likely to spill them. Give yourself positive instructions such as “stay calm”, “be confident” or “go for it” and you give yourself a better chance of success in your running. Final Tips 1. Strike the posePsychologists at Harvard Business School carried out a study where they asked their subjects to adopt “power poses”; effectively changing their body language to make their bodies bigger. After only two minutes of power posing, they found that on average their dominance hormone, testosterone, increased by almost 20 per cent. At the same time, their stress hormone, cortisol, reduced by a similar amount. Incredibly, after only a couple of minutes you can feel significantly more confident and relaxed just by changing your posture. So if you want to feel confident before and during your run, all you need to do is strike the right pose. 2. Fire up your imaginationOne way of exploiting your imagination is to use mental rehearsal techniques to train the mind and body to perform successfully. When we imagine performing a skill, we fire up an almost identical pattern of neural responses to when we are actually performing the skill itself. By imagining yourself in the process of running the marathon you can train your brain to be more prepared for the race, so that it feels like it’s something you have already achieved. In fact, our imagination is so powerful that studies have shown that just by mentally rehearsing having a workout in the gym you can increase your muscle mass. If you want to be fitter, faster and stronger on your run, all you have to do is use a little imagination! 3. Stay in the presentAthletes perform at their best when they are in a state of flow or “in the zone”; a state where running feels easy and effortless. We get in the zone when we are performing and trusting our unconscious, learned skills without any self-consciousness, when we are free of distractions, fears and concern of the consequences of our actions. To get into the zone, it is essential for the mind to be in the present. Marathon runners can often find themselves out of the present, focusing on the future, about how far they have to go and what time they are going to run, or looking back to the past and worrying about whether they have done enough training and whether they have started at the right pace. If you just focus on what is in front of you, enjoy the crowds, the atmosphere and even focus on your breathing, you are more likely to get into the zone.